Blending Programming Environments and Games

Titus presents. Photo by Austin Henley.

I presented our full paper, A Perspective on Blending Programming Environments and Games: Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards, at the IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC 2016) in Cambridge, UK.

The abstract of the paper follows:

Programming environments and game environments share many of the same characteristics, such as requiring their users to understand strategies and solve difficult challenges. Yet, only game designers have been able to capitalize on methods that are consistently able to keep their users engaged. Consequently, software engineers have been increasingly interested in understanding how these game experiences can be transferred to programming experiences, a process termed gamification.

In this perspective paper, we offer a formal argument that gamification as applied today is predominately narrow, placing emphasis on the reward aspects of game mechanics at the expense of other important game elements, such as framing. We argue that more authentic game experiences are possible when programming environments are re-conceptualized and assessed as holistic, serious games. This broad gamification enables us to more effectively apply and leverage the breadth of game elements to the construction and understanding of programming environments.

European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming Retrospective

Through my research in HCI and software engineering tools, I typically make the annual rounds in conferences such as ICSE, FSE, and VL/HCC. Thus, having the opportunity to attend ECOOP 2016 was definitely outside of my comfort area, but it was worthwhile in that it provided me with exposure to an otherwise enigmatic area of Computer Science.

As a first-timer to ECOOP, I expected all of the conference to basically be about programming language (PL) theory (or as we call it in HCI, the land of Greek letters). I was surprised, however, to find workshops on the usability aspects of programming languages. I attended two such workshops:

  • LIVE, a workshop on live programming systems that “abandon the traditional edit-compile-run cycle in favor of fluid user experiences.”
  • Grace, a workshop on the emerging Grace programming language. Originating at ECOOP in 2010, the Grace programming language is designed to allow novices to discover object-oriented programming in simpler ways.

To gain exposure to new ideas, I also attended ICOOOLPS, a workshop on compiler optimization and performance for object-oriented programming.

Although my own research community and ECOOP have relatively little intersection, through these smaller workshops I quickly met new colleagues, including James Noble, Michael Kölling, and my own PhD advisor’s advisor, Andrew Black.

An aspect of ECOOP that I particularly appreciated was the morning breakfast sessions, where students like myself were paired with faculty members to learn more about ECOOP research. I took full advantage of these sessions and introduced myself to a new faculty member each day for breakfast: Matthias Felleisen, Tobias Wrigstad, Laurence Tratt, and Jan Vitek.

Another highlight of the conference was the ECOOP Summer School. The lecturers for these talks made a significant effort to provide a gentle introduction to programming language theory and to explain the types of problems researchers in PL study. One of the more memorable lectures was a hands-on session by Laurence Tratt and Carl Friedrich Bolz, where we worked on our laptops to implement a JIT in Python.

ECOOP Summer School

Thanks again to the NSF for providing this amazing opportunity.

A process for surviving survey design and sailing through survey deployment

Perspectives on Data Science for Software Engineering I’m happy to announce that our book chapter, A process for surviving survey design and sailing through survey deployment, contained within Perspectives on Data Science for Software Engineering (eds. Tim Menzies, Laurie Williams and Thomas Zimmermann), is now available in press. The book chapter is intended for software engineering researchers and practitioners who are interested in deploying surveys within their organization.

As an author, an interesting aspect of the writing process for this book is that the materials were developed and peer-reviewed collaboratively on the GitHub ds4se repository. For example, here are the reviews for our own book chapter from the drafting process.

The abstract of the chapter follows:

Odysseus and the Sirens by Herbert James Draper, c. 1909.

In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his crew must confront Persephone’s Sirens, creatures that sang in irresistible voices and lured sailors to their deaths. Still, adventurers risked the journey for the promise of knowledge, for through the Sirens’ song, “[o]ver all the generous earth [the adventurers] know everything that happens.” With guidance from Circe, the goddess of magic, Odysseus instructed his crew to plug their ears to deafen them from the song. He then had his crew tie him to the mast and commanded them not to release him under any circumstances. And so Odysseus and his crew navigated safely past the Sirens. Odysseus, having heard the Sirens’ song, sailed away a wiser man.

Surveys, as with Persephone’s Sirens, are an attractive instrument that offer a similar lure of knowledge. Like Circe, we offer guidance, grounded in our own experiences, on a successful process for understanding the practice of software engineering through surveys.

European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming

This year I’m able to attend the European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP) in Rome, Italy, thanks to generous travel support from the National Science Foundation. This will be my first time at ECOOP.


I’m looking forward to meeting other researchers, building collaborations, discovering emerging research areas, and attending the ECOOP Summer School lectures to learn more about the formal and technical aspects of programming languages and tools.

Thesis proposal: How should static analysis tools explain anomalies to developers?

Eclipse Explanations

On April 26, 2016, I presented my thesis proposal to a committee of five members: Dr. Emerson Murphy-Hill (Chair), Dr. Jing Feng (Graduate School Representative), Dr. Shriram Krishnamurthi (External Member), Dr. James Lester, and Dr. Christopher Parnin.

I received a conditional pass. A conditional pass means that a formal re-examination is not required, but that the committee expects additional revisions before approving the proposal.

I suspect that there are some students who do not even realize that they have received a conditional pass, since the event does not seem to be recorded anywhere that is student-accessible.

In the weeks that followed, I made several revisions to the thesis proposal document, incorporating feedback from the presentation:

  1. The committee reduced the scope of required experiments from five to three.
  2. The committee added a new requirement that I conduct a systematic literature review on static analysis notification techniques.
  3. I added a thesis contract to explicitly state the dissertation deliverables.

On May 11, 2016, I submitted the revised proposal to the committee.

On May 20, 2016, I was notified that the committee had approved the revisions.

Although some students prefer to keep their thesis proposal secret until graduation, I have made the proposal and presentation materials available so that they may help other students in structuring their own proposals:


Despite the advanced static analysis tools available within modern integrated development environments (IDEs) for detecting anomalies, the error messages these tools produce to describe these anomalies remain perplexing for developers to comprehend. This thesis postulates that tools can computationally expose their internal reasoning processes to generate assistive error explanations in a way that approximates how developers explain errors to other developers and to themselves. Compared with baseline error messages, these error explanations significantly enhance developers’ comprehension of the underlying static analysis anomaly. The contributions of this dissertation are: 1) a theoretical framework that formalizes explanation theory in the context of static analysis anomalies, 2) a set of experiments that evaluate the extent to which evidence supports the theoretical framework, and 3) a proof-of-concept IDE extension, called Radiance, that applies my identified explanation-based design principles and operationalizes these principles into a usable artifact. My work demonstrates that tools stand to significantly benefit if they incorporate explanation principles in their design.

Experiments on the Golden Ratio

The golden ratio, or divine proportion, or PHI, is simply a number, nearly 1.61803399, and its discovery is attributed to the Greeks. What is astonishing is the frequency with which the number appears in art, music, and even nature. The appeal of the golden ratio to human psychology has been scientifically tested, beginning with German psychologist Fechner and followed by several others.

But objects constructed with the golden ratio in mind are not just pretty to look at; the mathematical properties of this elusive number are just as interesting. I’ll describe some of the more simple properties here.

Derivation of Phi

In my opinion, the easiest derivation for the golden ratio is to use the Golden Section definition:

The Golden Section is the division of a given unit of length into two parts such that the ratio of the longer to the shorter equals the ratio of the whole to the longer.

Thus, if we take a unit line and let x be the longer part and call the corresponding shorter part 1-x, we obtain the expression for the Golden Section:

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Substitution yields:

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Trivially, we use the quadratic equation to solve, and take the positive root (since it is defined as such by the Golden Section):

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Note: it’s actually easier to solve for x and then take the reciprocal, but then many of the curious identities of the golden ratio remain hidden.

Peculiar Properties

In the course of the derivation, the following peculiar properties have emerged (for brevity, proofs have been omitted):

  1. To find PHI-squared, simply add 1 to PHI. Consequently,
    for any n:

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  2. The difference of PHI and its reciprocal is the whole number one.
    And in general:

  3. Construct a series, where, for any even integer n:

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    And for any odd integer n:

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    That is, for any n, you always get a whole number.
    Take the ratio of any two successive numbers in this series, and
    its value converges to PHI!

The Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers form an interesting sequence defined recursively by:

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Like PHI, the Fibonacci numbers are abundant in nature, so you might reason that the Fibonacci numbers and PHI are related in some way. And you’d be correct. If we take the ratio of any two successive elements, for example:

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we find that the ratio, much like the PHI sequence, converges to the value of PHI!


All this just to say that the photographs from my recent Australasia trip are now available online. They are formatted using a 9:6 aspect ratio, which is as close to the golden ratio as we can get using traditional photography. I hope you enjoy them.